NUTRITIONAL PROGRAM FOR COCOA PRODUCTION
There is an increase in the area where cacao is planted, for example, CCN-51 has a 35% which represents 450 thousand hectares of cocoa planted in Ecuador. The soils of each geographical region, have physco-chemical and ecological constraints for adequate crop yield. However, there are soils that are not appropriate for cocoa growth since some of them are prone to flooding, are too shallow or have materials that prevent the harvest. Other soils that are not recommended for cocoa crops are the soils that are fine, compact or extremely clayey since they can’t drain water easily. The combination of textures, moderately fine (clay loam, silty clay loam, clay loam) and average (French, silty loam, sandy fine, very fine sandy loam) within the indicated depths, from the standpoint of physical soil , they are more suitable for their proper development and performance. Intrusions within the same profiles with layers of clay and / or coarse material, depending on its depth, will affect tree growth In the chemical aspect, conditions genesis and development of soil indicate the dependent variables of fertility. These are represented in pH%, organic matter, amounts present and nutrients (such as N, P, K, Ca, Mg , S and micro - elements such as zinc, boron, iron, manganese and copper). Other parameters such as Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) and electrical conductivity (EC), allow us to have a better idea to diagnose soil fertility (strengths and weaknesses). EcoKakao maintains a structural design with advantages and strengths to capture better quality cocoa producing areas, applying and respecting the rigorous quality standards of their harvest. Here we show some aspects that should be considered in the equitable distribution of nutrients in crops. drain water requirements and crop cultivation requirements indicate problems when total annual rainfall is less than 1500 mm; This is because irrigation infrastructure do not have sufficient drainage for rainwater. You need to identify the distribution of rainfall with intensities and frequencies to keep the soil field capacity, and in turn the water table (excess water saturation) remains below 1.20 meters deep after 24 hours an event of rain. Therein lies the importance of having adequate technical design of irrigation and drainage that balance both requirements. Seeding and cultural practices plantations must have an exact percentage of nutrients, and this is measured by how old they are the same. Over the years, the amount of nutrients must be accurate to keep them stable. What also strikes is the control of diseases and pests in the crops to be controlled with the proper use of fertilizers. Extraction of nutrients in cocoa cultivation technical reviews of many of the crops in tons is estimated at 45 kg N, 6 kg of P and 54 kg K; 6.5 kg of Ca and Mg 6 kg (Dr. Freddy Amores, INIAP 1992, Climate, soil, crop nutrition and fertilization). In the adult stage of the National Cocoa it has an annual demand of 90 kg of N, 12 kg P and 195 kg K / ha (more vegetative growth and fruiting discounts% normal efficiency of fertilizers applied). Nutritional demands of CCN51 are between 28.5 kg N, 5.8 kg P, K 47.9 kg, 7.2 kg and 3.4 kg Mg S. This draws attention between the proportion of potassium which has the CCN51 in relation to nitrogen National Cacao. nutritional requirements for CCN-51 cocoa varieties and national There is a very pronounced on the levels of soil fertility, variety in reference to age and growing population. 1 Tm recycling cocoa harvest may have a contribution of 2 kg / ha of N, 2.2 kg / ha and 20 kg P / ha K (organic Cacao, Dr. Enriquez, 2004).